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Automotive industry

The automotive industry is a term that covers a wide range of companies and organisations involved in the design, development, manufacture, marketing, and selling of motor vehiclestowed vehiclesmotorcycles and mopeds. It is one of the world's most important economic sectors by revenue.
The term automotive industry usually does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as repair shops and motor fuel filling stations.
The term automotive was created from Greek autos (self), and Latin motivus (of motion) to represent any form of self-powered vehicle. This term was proposed by SAE member Elmer Sperry.

History

The automotive industry began in the 1890s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929 before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the U.S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After World War II, the U.S. produced about 75 percent of world's auto production. In 1980, the U.S. was overtaken by Japan and became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U.S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.2 million units manufactured in 2012, China almost doubled the U.S. production, with 10.3 million units, while Japan was in third place with 9.9 million units.

Safety

Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, danger, damage or cause of injury. In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automotives themselves implies that there is no risk of damage.
Safety in the automotive industry is particularly important and therefore highly regulated. Automobiles and other motor vehicles have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international, in order to be accepted on the market. The standard ISO 26262 (_See also main article:_ ISO 26262) for instance is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive functional safety. That is, to ensure that motored vehicles meet all requirements for safe manufacturing and operation for end-users.
In case of safety issues, danger, product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle, the maker can request to return either a batch or the entire production run. This procedure is called product recall. Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material.
Product and operation tests and inspections at different stages of the value chain are made to avoid these product recalls by ensuring end-user security and safety and compliance with the automotive industry requirements. However, the automotive industry is still particularly concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences.

Economy

Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 260 billion US gallons (980,000,000 m3) of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly. The automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies. The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the four RIC markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Other potentially powerful automotive markets are Iran and Indonesia. Emerging auto markets already buy more cars than established markets. According to a J.D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010. The study expects this trend to accelerate.

World motor vehicle production

For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929 before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the US automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After WWII the U.S. issued 3/4 of world's auto production. In 1980 the U.S. was overtaken by Japan and became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U.S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. By producing 18.4 million units in 2011, China produced more than twice the number of automobiles made by the U.S. in second place with 8.7 million units, while Japan was in third place with 8.4 million units.

By year

Global production of motorvehicles

(cars and commercial vehicles)

Year
Production
Change
Source
1997
54,434,000

1998
52,987,000
-2.7%
1999
56,258,892
6.2%
2000
58,374,162
3.8%
2001
56,304,925
-3.5%
2002
58,994,318
4.8%
2003
60,663,225
2.8%
2004
64,496,220
6.3%
2005
66,482,439
3.1%
2006
69,222,975
4.1%
2007
73,266,061
5.8%
2008
70,520,493
-3.7%
2009
61,791,868
-12.4%
2010
77,857,705
26.0%
2011
79,989,155
3.1%
2012
84,141,209
5.3%

By country

World motor vehicle production by country in 2011
Reference: "Production Statistics". OICA. Retrieved 2012-03-12.

By manufacturer

World motor vehicle production by manufacturer in 2011
Reference: "World motor vehicle production by manufacturer: World ranking of manufacturers, Year 2011". OICA. November 2012.

Company relationships

It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies.
Notable current relationships include:
  • Daimler AG holds a 20% stake in Eicher Motors, a 10.0% stake in KAMAZ, a 4.7% stake in Tesla Motors, a 6.75% stake in Tata Motors and a 3.1% in the Renault-Nissan Alliance.
  • Dongfeng Motor Corporation is involved in joint ventures with several companies around the world, including: Honda (Japan), Hyundai (South Korea), Nissan (Japan), Nissan Diesel (Sweden), and PSA Peugeot Citroen (France).
  • Fiat holds a 90% stake in Ferrari and a 61.8% stake in Chrysler.
  • Ford Motor Company holds a 3% stake in Mazda, a 12.1% share in Aston Martin and a 49% share in Jiangling Motors. Ford and Navistar International also have a 50-50 joint venture in Blue Dimond Truck.
  • Geely Automobile holds a 23% stake in Manganese Bronze Holdings.
  • General Motors holds a 7% stake in PSA Peugeot Citroen, General Motors and Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC), and has two joint ventures in Shanghai General Motors andSAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile. Both also hold an equal 50% stake in General Motors India Private Limited. And General Motors holds a 94% stake in GM Korea and SAIC Group holds a 6% stake. General Motors and UzAvtosanoat have a joint venture called GM Uzbekistan, UzAvtosanoat owns 75% and General Motors owns 25%. General Motors and UzAvtosanoat also have a joint venture called UzDaewooAvto both each hold a 50-50 stake.
  • Mahindra & Mahindra and Navistar International has a joint venture called Mahindra Trucks and Buses Limited. Mahindra & Mahindra owns 51% and Navistar International owns 49%.
  • MAN SE holds a 17.01% voting stake in Scania. MAN and UzAvtosanoat have a joint venture called MAN Auto-Uzbekistan, UzAvtosanoat owns 51% and MAN owns 49%.
  • Navistar International and JAC has a joint venture called Anhui Jianghuai Navistar.
  • Porsche Automobil Holding SE has a 50.74% voting stake in Volkswagen Group. The Porsche automotive business is fully owned by the Volkswagen Group.
  • Renault and Nissan Motors have an alliance( Renault-Nissan Alliance ) involving two global companies linked by cross-shareholding, with Renault holding 44.3% of Nissan shares, and Nissan holding 15% of (non-voting) Renault shares. The alliance holds a 3.1% share in Daimler AG.
  • Renault holds a 25% stake in AvtoVAZ and a 80.1% stake in Renault Samsung.
  • Sollers JSC is involved in Joint ventures with Ford(Ford Sollers) and Mazda to produce cars.
  • Toyota holds a 51% stake in Daihatsu, 16.5% in Fuji Heavy Industries, parent company of Subaru, and a 10% stake in Tesla.
  • Volkswagen Group holds a 37.73% stake in Scania (68.6% voting rights), and a 53.7% stake in MAN SE (55.9% voting rights). Volkswagen is integrating Scania, MAN and its own truck division into one division.Volkswagen Group has a 19.9% stake in Suzuki, and Suzuki has a 5% stake in Volkswagen.
  • Paccar inc. has a 19% stake in Tatra.
  • Tata Motors also formed a joint venture with Fiat and gained access to Fiat’s diesel engine technology.Tata Motors sells Fiat cars in India through a 50/50 joint venture Fiat Automobiles India Limited, and is looking to extend its relationship with Fiat and Iveco to other segments

Top vehicle manufacturing groups in volume

The table below shows the world's largest motor vehicle manufacturing groups, along with the marques produced by each one. The table is ranked by 2011 end of year production figures from theInternational Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA) for the parent group, and then alphabetically by marque. Joint ventures are not reflected in this table. Production figures of joint ventures are typically included in OICA rankings, which can become a source of controversy.
Note: This section does not include the selling of other products in a region example; CAT sells commercial vehicles in the US, Canada, Mexico, and Australia, and New Zealand. But sells its other products worldwide. If the table(markets) says that a brand is available in example North America, it doesn't include Territories controlled by countries on other continents. Example; GMC isn't available in any European territories within North America.
MarqueCountry of originOwnershipMarkets
1. General Motors Company (United States United States)
BuickUnited StatesDivisionUnited States, Canada, Mexico, China, Israel
CadillacUnited StatesDivisionNorth America, Europe, Middle East, China, Japan, South Korea
ChevroletUnited StatesDivisionGlobal, except Australia, New Zealand
GMCUnited StatesDivisionNorth America, Middle East
HoldenAustraliaSubsidiaryAustralia, New Zealand
HSVAustraliaSubsidiaryAustralia, New Zealand
Jie FangChinaJoint ventureChina
OpelGermanySubsidiaryEurope (except UK), North Africa, South Africa, Middle East, China, Singapore, Chile
OPCGermanyDivisionEurope (except UK), South Africa, Middle East, Singapore, Chile
VauxhallUnited KingdomSubsidiaryUnited Kingdom
2. Volkswagen Group AG (Germany Germany)
AudiGermanySubsidiaryGlobal, except Iran
BentleyUnited KingdomSubsidiaryGlobal
BugattiFranceSubsidiaryGlobal
LamborghiniItalySubsidiaryGlobal
MANGermanySubsidiaryEurope, Asia, Africa, South America, India
PorscheGermanySubsidiaryGlobal, except Iran
ScaniaSwedenSubsidiaryGlobal
SEATSpainSubsidiaryEurope, South America, Africa, Middle East, China, Mexico
ŠkodaCzech RepublicSubsidiaryEurope, Asia, Central America (including Dominican Republic), South America, Northern and western Africa, Australia, New Zealand
VolkswagenGermanySubsidiaryGlobal
Volkswagen Commercial VehiclesGermanySubsidiaryEurope, Central America, South America, Australia, China
VTBBrazilSubsidiaryBrazil, Mexico, Nigeria and South Africa
3. Toyota Motor Corporation (Japan Japan)
DaihatsuJapanSubsidiaryEurope, Asia, Africa, and South America
HinoJapanSubsidiarySouth East Asia, Japan, North America and South America
LexusJapanDivisionSouth East Asia, Japan, Middle East, United States, Canada, Europe, Brazil, Panama, Chile, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India
Lexus FJapanDivisionSouth East Asia, Japan, Middle East, United States, Canada, Europe, Brazil, Panama, Chile, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India
RanzChinaJoint-ventureChina
ScionUnited StatesSubsidiaryUnited States, Canada
ToyotaJapanDivisionGlobal, except Iran
TRDUnited StatesSubsidiaryNorth America, United Kingdom, Japan
4. Hyundai Motor (South Korea South Korea)
HyundaiSouth KoreaDivisionGlobal, except Mexico and Japan
KiaSouth KoreaSubsidiaryGlobal, except Mexico and Japan
5. Ford Motor Company (United States United States)
FordUnited StatesDivisionGlobal
FPVAustraliaSubsidiaryAustralia
Ford Team RSUnited KingdomSubsidiaryEurope
LincolnUnited StatesDivisionUnited States, Canada, Mexico, Middle East, Japan, South Korea, China
SVTUnited StatesDivisionNorth America, Middle East
TrollerBrazilSubsidiarySouth America, Africa
6. Nissan (Japan Japan)
DatsunJapanDivisionIndonesia, India, Russia, South Africa
InfinitiHong KongSubsidiaryGlobal, except Japan, Korea, South America and Africa
Infiniti Performance LineJapanDivisionGlobal, except Japan, Korea, South America and Africa
NissanJapanDivisionGlobal, except Korea
NismoJapanDivisionGlobal, except Korea
VenuciaChinaJoint ventureChina
7. Fiat S.p.A. (Italy Italy)
AbarthItalySubsidiaryGlobal, except Iran
Alfa RomeoItalySubsidiaryGlobal, except Iran, China, Taiwan and the Philippines
ChryslerUnited StatesSubsidiaryGlobal, except Europe (excluding UK and Ireland), Africa (excluding South Africa and Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia (excluding the Philippines)
DodgeUnited StatesSubsidiaryGlobal, except Europe, Africa(excluding South Africa and Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia (excluding the Philippines)
FerrariItalySubsidiaryGlobal, except Africa(excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia
FiatItalySubsidiaryGlobal, except Africa(excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia
JeepUnited StatesSubsidiaryGlobal, except Africa(excluding South Africa and Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia (excluding the Philippines)
LanciaItalySubsidiaryEurope (except UK and Ireland, Cyprus, Denmark, Norway, Iceland & East Europe)
MaseratiItalySubsidiaryGlobal
MoparUnited StatesSubsidiaryGlobal, except Africa(excluding South Africa and Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia
RamUnited StatesSubsidiaryUnited States, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Middle East
Street and Racing TechnologyUnited StatesSubsidiaryGlobal, except Africa(excluding South Africa and Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia
8. PSA Peugeot Citroën S.A. (France France)
CitroënFranceSubsidiaryEurope, Central and South America, Northern and Western Africa, South Africa, Madagascar, Australia, New Zealand, Asia (except India, Pakistan and Bangladesh)
PeugeotFranceSubsidiaryGlobal, except USA, Canada, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh
9. Honda Motor Company (Japan Japan)
AcuraUnited StatesSubsidiaryUnited States, Canada, Mexico, China
EverusChinaJoint ventureChina
HondaJapanDivisionGlobal, except Korea
10. Renault (France France)
DaciaRomaniaSubsidiaryEurope, Middle East, Northern Africa
RenaultFranceDivisionGlobal, except United States, Canada, Korea, Africa(excluding North Africa, Ghana, Kenya and South Africa)
Renault SamsungSouth KoreaSubsidiarySouth Korea, Chile
11. Suzuki Motor Corporation (Japan Japan)
SuzukiJapanDivisionGlobal, except USA, Canada and Korea
Maruti SuzukiIndiaSubsidiaryIndia, Middle East, South America
12. BMW AG (Germany Germany)
BMWGermanyDivisionGlobal
BMW iGermanyDivisionGlobal
BMW MGermanyDivisionGlobal
MINIUnited KingdomDivisionGlobal
Rolls-RoyceUnited KingdomSubsidiaryGlobal
13. Daimler AG (Germany Germany)
BharatBenzIndiaSubsidiaryIndia
DenzaChinaJoint ventureChina
FreightlinerUnited StatesDivisionNorth America, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand
MasterPakistanSubsidiaryPakistan
Mercedes-AMGGermanyDivisionGlobal
Mercedes-BenzGermanyDivisionGlobal
Mercedes-Benz BusesGermanyDivisionGlobal
Mitsubishi FusoJapanSubsidiaryGlobal
SetraGermanyDivisionEurope, Asia, USA
SmartGermanyDivisionGlobal
Thomas BuiltUnited StatesSubsidiaryNorth America
Western StarUnited StatesSubsidiaryNorth America, Australia, New Zealand
14. Mazda Motor Corporation (Japan Japan)
MazdaJapanDivisionGlobal, except Korea
15. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (Japan Japan)
MitsubishiJapanDivisionGlobal, except Korea
RalliartJapanSubsidiaryGlobal, Except Korea
16. Dongfeng Motor Corporation (China China)
FengshenChinaDivisionChina
VenuciaChinaJoint ventureChina
17. Tata Motors, Ltd (India India)
HispanoSpainSubsidiaryEurope
JaguarUnited KingdomSubsidiaryGlobal
Land RoverUnited KingdomSubsidiaryGlobal
TataIndiaDivisionIndia, Ghana, Italy, Nepal, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Turkey, Nigeria
Tata DaewooSouth KoreaSubsidiarySouth Korea, Pakistan
18. Geely Automobile (China China)
EnglonChinaDivisionChina
EmgrandChinaDivisionChina, United Kingdom, Turkey
GleagleChinaDivisionChina
GeelyChinaDivisionChina, Taiwan, Russia, North Africa, Middle East, South America, South Africa, Australia, Turkey
MapleChinaDivisionChina
Volvo (Cars)SwedenSubsidiaryGlobal
19. Beijing Automotive Industry Holding Corporation, Ltd (China China)
BAWChinaDivisionChina
FotonChinaSubsidiaryChina, Taiwan, Japan, Australia, South America, India
20. Chana Automobile Company, Ltd (China China)
ChanaChinaDivisionChina, Taiwan, South Africa, Europe
HafeiChinaSubsidiaryChina
ChangheChinaDivisionChina
Tiger TruckUnited StatesSubsidiaryUnited States, Canada
21. SAIPA (Iran Iran)
Pars KhodroIranSubsidiaryIran
SAIPAIranDivisionIran, Syria
SAIPA DieselIranSubsidiaryIran
ZamyadIranSubsidiaryIran
22. Chery Automobile Company, Ltd (China China)
CheryChinaDivisionChina, South East Asia, Russia, South Africa, South America
QorosChinaJoint-VentureChina
RiichChinaDivisionChina
RelyChinaDivisionChina
23. OAO AvtoVAZ (Russia Russia)
LadaRussiaDivisionEurope (except United Kingdom, Portugal and Malta), Central Asia
VISRussiaDivisionRussia
24. First Automotive Group Corporation (China China)
BesturnChinaDivisionChina
FreewindChinaSubsidiaryChina
HaimaChinaSubsidiaryChina
HongqiChinaDivisionChina
JiaxingChinaSubsidiaryChina
Jie FangChinaJoint ventureChina
VitaChinaSubsidiaryChina
XialiChinaSubsidiaryChina
25. Fuji Heavy Industries, Ltd (Japan Japan)
SubaruJapanDivisionGlobal, except Mexico and Korea
26. Great Wall Motor Company, Ltd (China China)
Great WallChinaDivisionChina, Taiwan, South Africa, Russia, North Africa, Australia, Europe, Middle East
27. Isuzu Motors, Ltd (Japan Japan)
IsuzuJapanDivisionGlobal, except Brazil and Korea
28. Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Company, Ltd (China China)
JACChinaDivisionChina, Africa, Brazil
29. Brilliance China Automotive Holding, Ltd (China China)
BrillianceChinaDivisionChina, North Africa
JinbeiChinaSubsidiaryChina
30. SAIC Motor (China China)
BaojunChinaJoint ventureChina
MaxusChinaDivisionChina, Australia, South Africa, United Kingdom, Chile, Malaysia
MG MotorUnited KingdomSubsidiaryChina, United Kingdom, South America, Australia
RoeweChinaDivisionChina, Belarus
SoyatChinaDivisionChina
YuejinChinaDivisionChina
WulingChinaJoint ventureChina
31. BYD Auto (China China)
BYDChinaDivisionChina, Taiwan, Russia, United States, Canada
DenzaChinaJoint ventureChina
32. Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd (India India)
MahindraIndiaDivisionIndia, South East Asia, Europe, North Africa, North America, Australia
REVAIndiaDivisionIndia
SsangYongSouth KoreaSubsidiaryGlobal, except North America and Japan
33. AB Volvo (Sweden Sweden)
MackUnited StatesSubsidiaryUnited States, Canada, Mexico, Venezuela, Peru, Australia
NovaBusCanadaSubsidiaryNorth America
PrevostCanadaSubsidiaryNorth America
Renault TrucksFranceSubsidiaryGlobal, except Japan, United States and Canada
UD TrucksJapanSubsidiaryGlobal
Volvo TrucksSwedenSubsidiaryGlobal
34. China Changan Automotive (China China)
China Changan AutomotiveChinaSubsidiaryChina
35. Iran Khodro Company (Iran Iran)
Iran KhodoroIranDivisionMiddle East,Northern Africa, Russia, Belarus, Central Asia, China, Venezuela
IKCO DieselIranDivisionMiddle East, Northern and Western Africa
36. Chongqing Lifan Automobile Company, Ltd (China China)
LifanChinaDivisionChina, Taiwan, Russia, Middle East, South America
37. Proton Holdings, Bhd (Malaysia Malaysia)
LotusUnited KingdomSubsidiaryGlobal
ProtonMalaysiaDivisionSouth East Asia, Japan?, South Africa, United Kingdom, Middle East
38. Jiangling Motors ( China)
JianglingChinaDivisionChina, Europe
39. Fujian Motors Group (China China)
SoueastChinaJoint-VentureChina
King LongChinaJoint-VentureChina, South East Asia, India, North America, Europe, Middle East, Australia, New Zealand
Xiamen Golden DragonChinaJoint-VentureChina, South East Asia, Middle East, Africa, South America
Higer BusChinaJoint-VentureChina,South Asia, Middle East, Africa, Russia, Eastern Europe, United States, Canada, Central America, South America
40. Kuozui Motors, Ltd ( Taiwan)
KuozuiTaiwanSubsidiaryTaiwan
42. China National Heavy Duty Truck Group (China China)
SinotruckHong KongDivisionChina
43. Hunan Jiangnan Automobile (China China)
JiangnanChinaDivisionChina
44. Paccar Inc. (United States United States)
DAF TrucksNetherlandsSubsidiaryGlobal, except North America and Japan
KenworthUnited StatesDivisionNorth America, Australia
Leyland TrucksUnited KingdomSubsidiaryGlobal, except North America and Japan
PeterbiltUnited StatesDivisionNorth America
45. GAZ (Russia Russia)
GAZRussiaDivisionRussia, Europe, Central Asia
LiAZRussiaSubsidiaryRussia
Ural TrucksRussiaDivisionRussia
46. Shaanxi Automobile Group (China China)
ShaanxiChinaDivisionChina
47. Qingling Motors Company Ltd. (China China)
QinglingChinaDivisionChina
48. Ashok Leyland (India India)
Ashok LeylandIndiaDivisionSouth Asia, Middle East, East Africa
49. Navistar International Corporation (United States United States)
eStarUnited StatesDivisionUnited States, Canada
ICUnited StatesSubsidiaryUnited States, Canada
InternationalUnited StatesDivisionNorth America, South America, Russia, Middle East, Egypt, South Africa
??. Fiat Industrial S.p.A (Italy Italy)
IvecoItalySubsidiaryGlobal
IrisbusFranceSubsidiaryGlobal, except North America
Zastava TrucksSerbiaSubsidiaryEurope
??. Oshkosh Corporation (United States United States)
OshkoshUnited StatesDivisionUSA, Canada, China
??. Yulon Motor (Taiwan Taiwan)
LuxgenTaiwanDivisionTaiwan, China, Oman
TobeTaiwanDivisionTaiwan
??. Shandong Kaima (China China)
KaimaChinaDivisionChina
JubaoChinaDivisionChina
AofengChinaDivisionChina
??. Guangzhou Automobile Industry Group Co Ltd (China China)
ChangfengChinaSubsidiaryChina, Russia, Middle East, Africa
EverusChinaJoint ventureChina
GonowChinaSubsidiaryChina
TrumpchiChinaDivisionChina
??. Micro (cars) (Sri Lanka Sri Lanka)
Micro (cars)Sri LankaDivisionSri Lanka
??. Rongcheng Hawtai Automobile (China China)
HawtaiChinaDivisionChina
??. Caterpillar Inc. (United States United States)
CATUnited StatesDivisionUnited States, Canada, Mexico, Australia, New Zealand

By total production

Quantifying the total production of a manufacturer, from their start-up, is a difficult task, because of frequent company ownership changes. However some producers, and independent sources, provide some valuable statistics:
  • Toyota reached 200 000 000 vehicles as of July 2012 (after 77 years of production).

Minor automotive manufacturers

There are many automobile manufacturers other than the major global companies. They are mostly regional or operating in niche markets.

Last updated on 14 September 2013 at 03:47.

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