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Lancia

Lancia Automobiles S.p.A. (Italian pronunciation: [ˈlantʃa]) is an Italian automobile manufacturer founded in 1906 by Vincenzo Lancia which became part of the Fiat Group in 1969.
The company has a strong rally heritage and is noted for using letters of the Greek alphabet for its model names.

Founded
November 29, 1906
Founder(s)
Vincenzo Lancia
Headquarters
Turin, Italy
Key people
John Elkann (President)
Saad Chehab (CEO of Lancia and Chrysler brand) CEO of Lancia - Antonella Bruno(since 23 April 2013)
Owner(s)
Fiat S.p.A.
Parent
Fiat Group Automobiles S.p.A.
Website

History

Foundation and early years

Lancia production between 1998-2010
Year
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
Cars
175,215
161,019
170,348
134,812
110,529
108,989
Year
2004
2005
2005
2006
2006
2007
Cars
118,201
115,543
115,543
122,956
122,956
118,036
Year
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

Cars
113,307
113,810
97,757
100,007
98,733

Lancia Beta Torpedo (1909)
Lancia was founded on 29 November 1906 in Turin by Vincenzo Lancia and his friend Claudio Fogolin, both being Fiat racing drivers, as Lancia & C. The first Lancia automobile the "tipo 51" or 12 HP (later called Alfa) was made in 1907 and produced from 1908. This car had a small four cylinder engine with a power of 58 bhp. In 1915 the Jota, Lancia's first truck, appeared and there followed a series of Jota trucks. In 1937 Vincenzo died of a heart attack, and his wife Adele Miglietti Lancia and his son Gianni Lancia took over the firm. They persuaded Vittorio Jano to join Lancia as an engineer. Jano had already made a name for himself by constructing the Alfa Romeo 1750 Sport Alfa Romeo 6C, 2300, 2900, P2 Alfa Romeo P2 and P3 Alfa Romeo P3, some of the most successful racers of its time.
Lancia is famous for many automotive innovations. These include the 1913 Theta, which was the first production car in Europe to feature a complete electrical system as standard equipment. The first car with a monocoque-type body – the Lambda, produced from 1922 to 1931 also featured 'Sliding Pillar' independent front suspension that incorporated the spring and hydraulic damper into a single unit (and featured on most production Lancias until the Appia was replaced in 1963). 1948 saw the first 5 speed gearbox to be fitted to a production car (Series 3 Ardea). Lancia premiered the first full-production V6 engine, in the 1950 Aurelia, after earlier industry-leading experiments with V8 and V12 engine configurations. It was also the first company to produce a V4 engine. Also, Lancia pioneered the use ofindependent suspension in production cars, in an era where live axles were common practice for both the front and rear axles of a car. They also developed rear transaxles which were fitted to the Aurelia and Flaminia ranges. The innovativeness, constant quest for excellence, the fixation of quality, the complication of the construction processes and the antiqued machinery meant that all cars essentially had to be hand-made. With little commonality between the various models, the cost of production continued to increase extensively, while demand did not.
Gianni Lancia, a graduate engineer was president of Lancia from 1947 to 1955. In 1956 the Pesenti family took over control of Lancia with Carlo Pesenti (1907–1984) in charge.

1969 to present

Fiat launched a take-over bid in October 1969 which was accepted by Lancia as the company was losing significant sums of money, with losses in 1969 being GB£20m. This was not the end of the distinctive Lancia marque, and new models in the 1970s such as the Stratos, Gamma and Beta served to prove that Fiat wished to preserve the image of the brand it had acquired.
During the 1980s, the company cooperated with Saab Automobile, with the Lancia Delta being sold as the Saab 600 in Sweden. The 1985 Lancia Thema also shared a platform with the Saab 9000, Fiat Croma and the Alfa Romeo 164. During the 1990s, all models were closely related to other Fiat models.
In 2011, Lancia moved in a new direction and added new models manufactured by Chrysler and sold under the Lancia badge in many European markets. Conversely, some Lancia built models began to be sold in right-hand drive markets under the Chrysler badge.

The original Lancia logo was designed by Count Carlo Biscaretti di Ruffia. The logo shows a lance and shield with flag. ("Lancia" means "lance" in Italian.) The Turin automobile museum is named after di Ruffia as Museo Nazionale dell'Automobile “Carlo Biscaretti di Ruffia”. The logo was redesigned in 2007.

Lancia family

Cavalier Giuseppe Lancia' (1860 (Cuneo) - 1912(Bordighera)) is an Italian businessman and father of Vincenzo Lancia. Giuseppe had a business in the food industry in Turin. The Lancia family lived in Turin in Corso. Vittorio Emanuele came from a family with a good reputation and civic attitude.The family was part of the culture life in Turin
Cavalier Giuseppe Lancia had four children - Giovanni, Arturo, Maria and Vincenzo. The family liked to spend time in their villa in Fobello
. The youngest child, 'Vincenzo, was not interested in school and had no desire to become a lawyer like his father wanted. Cavalier Giuseppe Lancia supported Vincenzo in his interests in automobiles. In 1906 Vincenzo cemented the reputation of the Lancia family by becoming CEO of the company. In 1922 Vincenzo married Adele Mageletti (a worker at the Lancia company) and had three children - Anna Maria, Gianni, and Eleonora.

Automotive

List of Lancia car models

Category
Models
Current models
Ypsilon II, Delta III, Flavia II, Thema II, Musa, Voyager
Historic models
1900-1939: Lambda, Artena, Aprilia, Augusta, Alfa-12hp, Beta-15/20hp, Epsilon, Theta-35hp, Dikappa, Gamma-20hp, Eta-30/50hp, Kappa, delta-20/30hp, Zeta-12/15hp, Dialfa-18hp, Astura, Trikappa, Dilambda, 12 cil V
1940-1979: Ardea, Appia, Fulvia, Aprilia, Flavia, Beta, Aurelia, Flaminia, 2000, Gamma, Fulvia Coupé/Sport, Flavia I/2000, Beta Coupé/Spider/Montecarlo, Gamma Coupé, Stratos
1980 onwards: A112, Y10, Ypsilon, Delta I, Delta II, Beta, Prisma, Dedra, Lybra, Beta Trevi, Gamma, Thema I, Kappa, Thesis, Zeta, Phedra, 037, Delta S4
Concept cars
Aprilia Pininfarina Cabriolet, Ardea Pininfarina, PF 2500, Flaminia Loratmo, Flaminia Spider Amalfi, Marica, Stratos Zero, Megagamma, Dunja, Mizar, Sibilo, Delta Castania, Spider, Medusa, Orca, Together, Hit, Magia, Thema Coupe, Kayak, Ionos, Dialogos, Nea, Granturismo, Fulvia Coupe, Thesis Limosine, Fenomenon Stratos, Delta concept, Flavia Sedan
Racing cars
D20 D23 D24 D25, D50, Montecarlo Turbo, LC1, LC2

Current models

Lancia Ypsilon

Lancia Ypsilon
The Ypsilon is a supermini car produced from 2011, It is based on an updated Fiat 500 platform. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, it is sold as the Chrysler Ypsilon.

Lancia Delta

A small family car unveiled at the 2008 Geneva Motor Show. Using stretched version of Fiat C-platform. Available as five-door hatchback. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, it is sold as theChrysler Delta.

Lancia Flavia

A convertible unveiled at the 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show, which is based on the Chrysler 200. It re–uses the name from the 1961–71 Flavia. The convertible is only available in LHD markets, not RHD markets.

Lancia Thema

Lancia Thema
An executive car unveiled in 2011, which is a re-branded second generation Chrysler 300, and replaced the Thesis. It re–uses the name from the 1984–94 Thema. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, it is sold as the Chrysler 300.

Lancia Voyager

A minivan unveiled in 2011, which is based on the Chrysler Town & Country. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, it is sold as the Chrysler Grand Voyager.

Past car models

Lancia has a long tradition of passenger, fast touring, sports and racing cars. They have tended to emphasize quality, appearance and sophisticated design, somewhat at the expense of power and competitive pricing. Among the most beautiful, desirable and unusual models are various Lancia Zagato models.
The Lancia Aurelia introduced the front engine rear transmission configuration later used by Ferrari, Alfa Romeo, Porsche, GM, and Maserati, as well as the V6 engine, which is now common. It also had inboard rear brakes, an important way of reducing un-sprung weight.
The Lancia Stratos was a successful rally car during the 1970s and helped the company to improve its sporting credentials.

Concept cars

The Kayak
Lancia have shown several concept cars to the public including the 1958 - Lancia Flaminia Loratmo,1970 Lancia Stratos Zero, the Megagamma byItaldesign Giugiaro and Sibilo by Bertone in 1978, Lancia Hit by Pininfarina in 1988, the Kayak in 1995 and the Dialogos in 1998. More recently, the company displayed the Nea in 2000, the Granturismo and Fulvia concepts in 2003, and a non-Lancia company proposed a new Stratos in 2005.

List of Lancia concept cars

  • 1947 Lancia Aprilia Pininfarina Cabriolet
  • 1947 Lancia Ardea Pininfarina
  • 1953 Lancia PF 2500
  • 1958 Lancia Flaminia Loratmo
  • 1962 Lancia Flaminia Spider Amalfi
  • 1969 Lancia Marica
  • 1970 Lancia Stratos Zero
  • 1970 Lancia Megagamma
  • 1971 Lancia Dunja
  • 1974 Lancia Mizar
  • 1978 Lancia Sibilo
  • 1978 Lancia Delta Castania
  • 1979 Lancia Spider
  • 1980 Lancia Medusa
  • 1982 Lancia Orca
  • 1984 Lancia Together
  • 1988 Lancia Hit
  • 1992 Lancia Magia
  • 1993 Lancia Thema Coupe
  • 1995 Lancia Kayak
  • 1997 Lancia Ionos
  • 1998 Lancia Dialogos
  • 2001 Lancia Nea
  • 2003 Lancia Granturismo
  • 2003 Lancia Fulvia Coupe
  • 2004 Lancia Thesis Limosine
  • 2005 Lancia Fenomenon Stratos
  • 2008 Lancia Delta concept
  • 2011 Lancia Flavia Sedan

Special cars

In the end of 1957 make their first limo for the President of Italy - Lancia Florida.In 1989 Lancia make a limo version of the model Thema.In 1999 a limo version of the Kappa and in 2004 in the Automobile show - Lancia Thesis Stola.

Export markets

USA

While some models had been imported on a small scale in the 1950s and 1960s, Lancias were officially sold in the United States from 1975. Sales were comparatively slow and the range was withdrawn at the same time as Fiat in 1982.
In 2009, following Fiat's acquisition of a stake in United States-based Chrysler and part of Chrysler's restructuring plans, it was stated that Fiat plans for the Chrysler brand and Lancia to codevelop products, with some vehicles being shared. Olivier Francois, Lancia's CEO, took over as CEO of the Chrysler division in October 2009. Fiat has also stated that, depending on the market, some Chrysler cars will be sold as Lancias and vice versa. Francois plans to reestablish the Chrysler brand as an upscale brand, a position somewhat muddied after the Plymouth brand was discontinued. At the 2010 Detroit Auto Show, a Chrysler-badged Lancia Delta was on display, but this has not resulted in sales in the USA, with proposals to modify an Alfa Romeo being considered instead for sale by 2013.

United Kingdom

Lancia's reputation was significantly undermined in 1980, when defective Lancia Beta models, suffering from significant suspension sub-frame corrosion problems were purchased back from owners by the company in a highly publicised campaign. These cars were subsequently crushed. The brand never recovered from the damage inflicted during the Beta recall, and combined with a range of related factors, including poor residual values which made their range uncompetitive, decided to withdraw from the right hand right-hand drive market.
The last Lancia cars to be sold in the UK were the Y10, which went off sale in 1993, the Dedra and Thema followed in 1994, whilst the more popular Delta, boosted by its rallying reputation continued on-sale in the UK until 1995.
There have been rumours suggesting Lancia's return to the UK almost continually since 1995, these have always been credible; with Lancia models sharing common parts with FIAT and Alfa Romeo models sold in the UK, and the existing FIAT or Alfa Romeo dealerships able to import, sell and maintain all Lancia models, there would be no major difficulty or expense in re-establishing the brand in the UK.
The success of Volkswagen's branding strategy with Audi, Skoda, SEAT and Volkswagen brands covering different areas of the passenger car market has been repeatedly asserted as a reason for FIAT to consider introducing Lancia as a more luxurious brand to compete with the affordable premium manufacturers, including SAAB and Volvo, who were the up market brands from General Motors and Ford respectively.
Fiat cancelled Lancia's United Kingdom relaunch due to financial concerns in 2008, at the start of the global recession and the financial crisis. Lancia Ypsilon and Delta models were eventually re-introduced to the UK in 2011, but were re-branded as Chrysler models.

Japan

Small series of Lancia are sold in Japan. A models like Lancia Fulvia, Lancia Delta, Lancia Stratos and the new models like the Lancia Delta(3rd generation), Lancia Ypsilon.

Lancia in motorsport

Formula One

See also: Lancia Grand Prix results
A Lancia D50A Formula One car
After Vincenzo Lancia's son Gianni became director of the firm, it started to take part more frequently in motorsport, eventually deciding to build a Grand Prix car. Vittorio Jano was the new designer for Lancia and his Lancia D50 was entered into the 1954 Spanish Grand Prix, where Alberto Ascari took the pole position and drove the fastest lap. In the 1955 Monaco Grand Prix Ascari crashed into the harbour after missing a chicane. One week later Ascari was killed in an accident driving a Ferrari sports car at Monza. With Ascari's death and Lancia's financial problems the company withdrew from Grand Prix racing. Altogether Lancia took two victories and ten podiums in Formula One.
Remnants of the Lancia team were transferred to Scuderia Ferrari, where Juan Manuel Fangio won the 1956 championship with a Lancia-Ferrari car.

Rallying

See also: Lancia in rallying
A Lancia Delta S4 Group B rally car
Lancia has been very successful in motorsport over the years, and mostly in the arena of rallying. Prior to the forming of the World Rally Championship, Lancia took the final International Championship for Manufacturers title with the Fulvia in 1972. In the WRC, they remain the most statistically successful marque (despite having withdrawn at the end of the 1993 season), winning constructors' titles with the Stratos (1974, 1975 and 1976), the037 (1983) and the Delta (six consecutive wins from 1987 to 1992). The Delta is also the most successful individual model designation ever to compete in rallying. All this gave Lancia a total of 11 Championships over the years.
Juha Kankkunen and Miki Biasion both won two drivers' titles with the Delta. Among other drivers to take several World Rally Championship wins with Lancia were Markku Alén, Didier Auriol, Sandro Munari, Bernard Darniche, Walter Röhrl, Björn Waldegård and Henri Toivonen. The history of the brand in rallying is also tainted with tragedy, with deaths of Italian driver Attilio Bettega at the 1985 Tour de Corse in a Lancia 037 and then Finnish championship favourite Toivonen in a Lancia Delta S4 at the same rally exactly a year later. These deaths would eventually lead to the end of Group Brallying.

Sports car racing

Lancia LC1 Group 6 sports car
During Lancia's dominance of rallying, the company also expanded into sports cars in the late 1970s until the mid-1980s. Originally running the Stratos HF in Group 4, as well as a brief interlude with a rare Group 5 version, the car was replaced with the successful Beta Montecarlo Turbo winning the FIA's 1980 World Championship for Makes and 1981 World Endurance Championship for Makes and the 1980 Deutsche Rennsport Meisterschaft.
In 1982 the team moved up to Group 6 with the LC1 Spyder, followed by the Group C LC2 coupé which featured a Ferrari powerplant in 1983. The LC2 was a match for the standard-setting Porsche 956 in terms of raw speed, securing 13 pole positions over its lifetime, however its results were hampered by poor reliability and fuel economy and it only managed to win three European and World Endurance Championship races. The team's inability to compete against the dominant Porsche 956 and 962 sports cars led it to drop out of sportscar racing at the end of 1986 in order to concentrate on rallying, although private teams continued to enter LC2s with declining results until the early 1990s.

Titles

  • 1979 World Championship for Makes (under 2-litre division)
  • 1980 World Championship for Makes (overall)
  • 1981 World Endurance Championship for Makes (overall)
  • 1980 Deutsche Rennsport Meisterschaft

Commercial vehicles

Lancia produced a wide range of vans, trucks, buses and military vehicles from the beginning, forming Lancia Veicoli Industriali in 1912. Lancia slowly withdrew from the commercial sectors during the late 1960s and production of commercial vehicles ended in the early 1970s, shortly after Fiat's takeover of the company, with some models transferred to Iveco.

Vans

  • Lancia Beta (1950)
  • Lancia Appia Furgoncino (van), Camioncino (pick-up) (1953)
  • Lancia Jolly (1959)
  • Lancia Super Jolly (1963)

Trucks

Lancia Triota 1921
  • Lancia Eta (car with a loading area)
  • Lancia Jota (1915)
  • Lancia Dijota (1915)
  • Lancia Triota (1921)
  • Lancia Tetrajota (1921)
  • Lancia Pentajota (1924)
  • Lancia Esajota
  • Lancia Eptajota (1927)
  • Lancia Ro (1932)
  • Lancia Ro-Ro (1935)
  • Lancia EsaRo (1941)
  • Lancia E290 (1941) single-built electric truck
  • Lancia 6Ro (1947)
  • Lancia Esatau (1950–1968)
  • Lancia Esatau B (1955)
  • Lancia Esadelta
  • Lancia Esadelta B (1959)
  • Lancia Esadelta C (1969)
  • Lancia Esagamma

Lancia Esadelta C

Lancia Esagamma E

Buses

    • Lancia Eptaiota (1919)
    • Lancia Trijota (bus)
    • Lancia Tetraiota
    • Lancia Pentaiota
    • Lancia Omicron (1927)
    • Lancia Ro (bus)
    • Lancia Esatau (bus)
    • Lancia Esagamma (bus)

                  Trolleybuses

                    • 1951 Lancia Esatau Piostiesi
                    • 1956 Lancia Esatau Piaggio Ansaldo
                    • 1961 Lancia Esatau V.11 (trolleybus)
                    • 1966 Lancia Diafa trolleybus
                    • 1967 Lancia Bimax
                    • 1968 Lancia Bimax F600
                    • 1968 Lancia Piostiesi
                    • 1969 Lancia Menarini Monocar
                    • 1969 Lancia Esatau P Casaro
                                    Lancia trolleybus in Athens

                                    Military vehicles

                                      • Lancia IZM (1912) armored vehicle
                                      • Lancia 3 RO (1938)
                                      • Lancia EsaRo (1942) truck
                                      • Lancia Lince (lynx) (1942) armored car – a copy of Daimler Dingo MK I
                                      • Lancia 6Ro (1948) LKW
                                      • Lancia CL51 (Z 20) (1954) troop transporter
                                      • Lancia TL51 (Z 30) (1954) lorries
                                      • Lancia ACL 90 (later Iveco)
                                      • Lancia 506
                                      • Lancia 6611
                                                        Lancia 3RO military truck

                                                        Other

                                                        • 1971 Lancia Amfibia
                                                        • 2007 Lancia Bike
                                                        • 2009 Lancia di Lancia speedboat

                                                        Engines

                                                        • Lancia V4 engine
                                                        • Lancia V6 engine
                                                        • Lancia V8 engine
                                                        • Lancia Flat-4 engine

                                                        Industrial vehicles:

                                                        • Lancia 77
                                                        • Lancia V10
                                                        • Lancia PV81
                                                        • Lancia 703
                                                        • Lancia 716
                                                        • Lancia 718

                                                        Media and sponsorship

                                                        In 2009, the British motoring television show Top Gear suggested that Lancia had more 'great' models than any other car company. The presenters went on to test the Gamma Coupé, Fulvia Coupé, Aprilia, Montecarlo, Beta Coupé, HPE, Stratos, 037, Delta Integrale Evo II and Thema 8.32. They also stated during their review that Lancia made the best looking cars, even though they are unreliable.
                                                        Lancia sponsored the Venice Film Festival for five years, ending in 2012, with the Lancia Thema used to transport stars to the festival. Lancia was sponsor of ninth and eleventh World Summit of Nobel Peace Prize Laureates.

                                                        Gallery

                                                        Lancia Ypsilon
                                                        Lancia Delta
                                                        Lancia Flavia
                                                        Lancia Thema
                                                        Lancia Voyager
                                                        Last updated on 7 September 2013 at 18:20.

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