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Who Is Henry Ford And What Did He Do?

Who Is Henry Ford And What Did He Do
The Bottom Line – By introducing the moving assembly line, Henry Ford was hugely influential in changing the way that we manufacture not only cars but all types of goods. His innovations in the structure of work also contributed to the post-World War II rise of the American middle class, changing the economic landscape of the country.
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What did Henry Ford’s do?

Henry Ford, founder of Ford Motor Company, was born in Springwells Township, Wayne County, Michigan, on July 30, 1863, to Mary (Litogot) and William Ford. He was the eldest of six children in a family of four boys and two girls. His father was a native of County Cork, Ireland, who came to America in 1847 and settled on a farm in Wayne County.

  • Young Henry Ford showed an early interest in mechanics.
  • By the time he was 12, he was spending most of his spare time in a small machine shop he had equipped himself.
  • There, at 15, he constructed his first steam engine.
  • Later, he became a machinist’s apprentice in Detroit in the shops of James F.
  • Flower and Brothers, and in the plant of the Detroit Dry Dock Company.

After completing his apprenticeship in 1882, he spent a year setting up and repairing Westinghouse steam engines in southern Michigan. In July 1891, he was employed as an engineer at the Edison Illuminating Company of Detroit. He became chief engineer on November 6, 1893. Henry and Clara Ford Henry Ford’s career as a builder of automobiles dated from the winter of 1893 when his interest in internal combustion engines led him to construct a small one-cylinder gasoline model. The first Ford engine sputtered its way to life on a wooden table in the kitchen of the Ford home at 58 Bagley Avenue in Detroit. On August 19, 1899, he resigned from the Edison Illuminating Company and, with others, organized the Detroit Automobile Company, which went into bankruptcy about 18 months later. Meanwhile, Henry Ford designed and built several racing cars. In one of them, called Sweepstakes, he defeated Alexander Winton on a track in Grosse Pointe, Michigan on October 10, 1901.

  • One month later, Henry Ford founded his second automobile venture, the Henry Ford Company.
  • He would leave that enterprise, which would become the Cadillac Motor Car Company, in early 1902.
  • In another of his racing cars, the 999, he established a world record for the mile, covering the distance in 39.4 seconds on January 12, 1904 on the winter ice of Lake St.

Clair. On June 16, 1903, Henry and 12 others invested $28,000 and created Ford Motor Company. The first car built by the Company was sold July 15, 1903. Henry owned 25.5% of the stock in the new organization. He became president and controlling owner in 1906.

  • In 1919, Henry, Clara, and Edsel Ford acquired the interest of all minority stockholders for $105,820,894 and became the sole owners of the Company.
  • Edsel, who succeeded his father as president in 1919, occupied that position until his death in 1943, when Henry Ford returned to the post.
  • In September, 1945, when he resigned the presidency for a second time, Henry Ford recommended that his grandson, Henry Ford II, be elected to the position.

The board of directors followed his recommendation. In 1946, Henry Ford was lauded at the Automotive Golden Jubilee for his contributions to the automotive industry. In July of that same year, 50,000 people cheered for him in Dearborn at a giant 83rd birthday party.

Later that year, the American Petroleum Institute awarded him its first Gold Medal annual award for outstanding contributions to the welfare of humanity. The United States government honored him in 1965 by featuring his likeness with a Model T on a postage stamp as part of their Prominent Americans series.

In 1999, Fortune magazine named Henry Ford the Businessman of the Century. In collaboration with Samuel Crowther, he wrote My Life and Work (1922), Today and Tomorrow (1926), and Moving Forward (1930), which described the development of Ford Motor Company and outlined his industrial and social theories. He also published Edison, As I Know Him (1930), with the same collaborator.

Doctor of Engineering degrees were conferred on him by the University of Michigan and Michigan State College (now Michigan State University), and he received an honorary Doctor of Law degree from Colgate University. Henry Ford died at his residence, Fair Lane Estate in Dearborn, at 11:40pm on Monday, April 7, 1947, following a cerebral hemorrhage.

He was 83 years old. At his bedside were Clara Ford and members of their household staff. At the time of his death, flooding on the Rouge River, which flows through the grounds of Fair Lane, had cut off electrical power. Old-fashioned kerosene lamps and candles were the only sources of light in the house, creating a scene similar to his birth in the same county many years before.
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What is Ford known for?

Ford is a legendary car company. It’s perhaps best known as the first auto manufacturer to automate production with an assembly line, pay workers a so-called fair daily wage, and produce a vehicle for the mass-market everyday consumer. Today, it continues to stand apart from its American counterparts – for example, by avoiding bankruptcy in the 2008 financial collapse. Bryan Mitchell/Getty Images What signs of Ford’s unique approach and personality do you see at dealerships today? Here are four ways that Ford stands out from the competition.
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Why is Henry Ford important to US history?

Henry Ford While working as an engineer for the Edison Illuminating Company in Detroit, Henry Ford (1863-1947) built his first gasoline-powered horseless carriage, the Quadricycle, in the shed behind his home. In 1903, he established the Ford Motor Company, and five years later the company rolled out the first Model T.

In order to meet overwhelming demand for the revolutionary vehicle, Ford introduced revolutionary new mass-production methods, including large production plants, the use of standardized, interchangeable parts and, in 1913, the world’s first moving assembly line for cars. Enormously influential in the industrial world, Ford was also outspoken in the political realm.

Ford drew controversy for his pacifist stance during the early years of World War I and earned widespread criticism for his anti-Semitic views and writings.
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What is Henry Ford most famous for creating?

Henry Ford American business magnate (1863–1947) This article is about the American industrialist. For other people with the same name, see,

This article’s may be too short to adequately the key points, Please consider expanding the lead to of all important aspects of the article. ( July 2022 )

Henry Ford Photo by, c.  1919 Born ( 1863-07-30 ) July 30, 1863, U.S. DiedApril 7, 1947 (1947-04-07) (aged 83), U.S. Resting placeSt. Martha’s Episcopal Church Cemetery,, U.S.Occupation,, Years active1891–1945Known forFounding and leading the Pioneering a system that launched the mass production and sale of affordable automotives to the publicTitle of (1906–1919, 1943–1945)Political party

  • (before 1918)
  • (after 1918)

Spouse ​ ( m.1888 ) ​ ChildrenSignature Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was an American,, founder of the, and chief developer of the technique of, By creating the first automobile that middle-class Americans could afford, he converted the automobile from an expensive luxury into an accessible conveyance that profoundly impacted the landscape of the 20th century.

  • His introduction of the Ford automobile revolutionized transportation and American,
  • As the Ford Motor Company owner, he became one of the richest and best-known people in the world.
  • He is credited with “”, the mass production of inexpensive goods coupled with high wages for workers.
  • Ford had a global vision, with as the key to peace.

His intense commitment to systematically lowering costs resulted in many technical and business innovations, including a system that put dealerships throughout North America and major cities on six continents. Ford left most of his vast wealth to the and arranged for his family to permanently control it.
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How did Ford change the world?

Henry Ford (1863 – 1947), one of the most influential industrialists in history, ushered in the era of mass-production at the turn of the century, making the automobile available to the middle and working classes. In doing so, he shaped the culture of America forever.

  1. Ford was born on July 30, 1863, at his family’s prosperous farm in Dearborn, MI.
  2. During his early years, Ford demonstrated very little interest in farming and preferred instead to tinker with mechanical devices.
  3. At age 16, Ford left the farm to work in nearby Detroit as an apprentice machinist, a job he held for three years before returning to Dearborn.

He married Clara Bryant in 1888 and supported himself and his wife by running a sawmill. From 1891 to 1899, he worked as a mechanical engineer with the Edison Illuminating Company in Detroit. Henry Ford’s quadricycle. In his free time, Ford began testing experimental gasoline engine designs. By 1893, he had built a small one-cylinder gasoline combustion engine. Three years later he invented the Quadricycle the first “horseless carriage.” The Quadricycle had four wire wheels, was steered by a boat-like tiller, and propelled by an ethanol-powered engine with two forward speeds and no reverse.

The two-cylinder engine generated 4 hp and a top speed of 20 mph. Toward the turn of the century, Ford’s interest turned to automobiles, and by 1899 he had raised enough money to start his own company, the Detroit Automobile Company. Ford spent $86,000 in seed money, a fortune at the time, and designed his second vehicle in 1900, a delivery wagon.

However, his investors saw no profits forthcoming from the company and withdrew. After the collapse of the Detroit Automobile Company, with the help of new backers, Ford formed the Henry Ford Company, but this effort failed as well, amid significant competition by as many as 60 aspiring automakers in the U.S. Henry Ford with Model T in Buffalo, NY 1921. The Ford Motor Company was a success even though just five weeks after incorporation the Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers threatened to put Ford out of business because he was not a licensed manufacturer.

The group had acquired the rights to an automobile patent granted to inventor/patent attorney George Baldwin Selden, and was collecting a licensing fee for each vehicle manufactured. Ford fought the claim, and although he lost the initial case in 1909, he won an appeal in 1911 and thus opened the doors for the rapid growth of the automobile industry.

The fight and the victory had made Ford a popular hero. Ford dreamed of producing a reasonably priced, reliable automobile accessible to everyone. He once proclaimed, “I will build a motor car for the great multitude.” His dream came true when he launched the Model T in October of 1908.

In the 19 years of the Model T’s existence, he sold more than 15 million vehicles in the U.S., Canada, and Great Britain, a total amounting to half of the automobile output of the world at the time. Ford’s greatest contribution to the automobile industry was the development of the moving assembly line.

After much experimentation, Ford implemented the system in 1913 at its new plant in Highland Park, MI. The success of the new manufacturing technique was contingent upon the delivery of parts, subassemblies, and assemblies with precise timing to a constantly moving main assembly line.

  • The new technique allowed individual workers to stay in one place and perform the same task repeatedly on multiple vehicles that passed by them.
  • The line proved tremendously efficient, helping the company far surpass the production levels of their competitors—and making the vehicles more affordable.
  • Previously, it took 14 hours to assemble a Model T car.

The assembly line approach reduced this to 1 hour and 33 minutes. With higher manufacturing efficiency, Ford could lower the cost of each car and reduce the selling price from $1,000 to $360. In 1914, Ford began paying his employees $5 a day, nearly twice as much as the wages offered by other auto manufacturers.

He cut the work day down to eight hours, enabling the company to employ three shifts around the clock. Ford’s vision of the automobile as the ordinary man’s utility rather than the rich man’s luxury ushered in the so-called “Motor Age” that changed the economic and social character of the country. The new-found mobility of the masses enabled cities to spread outward and spurred the creation of suburbs and housing developments all connected by a developing highway system.

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Over the years, Ford suffered through problems with employees, government regulations, unions, and competition, mostly attributed to his opinionated, authoritative personality. He was slowed by a stroke in 1938 and died on April 7, 1947 at his home in Dearborn.
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What was Ford’s main goal?

In 1907, Henry Ford announced his goal for the Ford Motor Company: to create ‘a motor car for the great multitude.’ At that time, automobiles were expensive, custom-made machines.
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What is Ford’s best selling?

  • Ford F-150 leads the sales charts again, for the 40th year.
  • But only if you don’t consider Chevy Silverado and GMC Sierra as one truck.
  • Ram 1500 was second in 2021, and Tesla broke the top 20 for the first time.

Yes, it’s true that the Ford F-150 remained the most popular vehicle sold in America last year. No surprise. It has been for 40 years. In fact, the F-150 was the most popular new and used vehicle sold in America last year. Ford moved 726,004 F-150s out showroom doors in 2021, making it the top seller by over 150,000 units.

The Ram 1500 finally moved up from third to second with 569,388 and the Chevrolet Silverado fell to third with 519,774. Of course, if you combine Chevy Silverado’s 519,774 and GMC Sierra’s 248,924, you get 768,698, which beats Ford by over 40,000 units. So General Motors beat Ford, but only if you think of the Silverado and Sierra as the same thing, which they kind of are.

The marketing departments don’t want you to think so, but the sales guys do. Go ahead and debate that amongst yourselves for the rest of the day. Tesla finally cracked the Top 20 cars sold in the U.S. with the Model Y crossover, of which it sold 178,732.

  1. Ford F-150 —726,004 sold
  2. Ram 1500 —569,388 sold
  3. Chevy Silverado —519,774 sold
  4. Toyota RAV4 —407,739 sold
  5. Honda CR-V — 361,271 sold
  6. Toyota Camry —313,795 sold
  7. Nissan Rogue —285,602 sold
  8. Jeep Grand Cherokee —264,444 sold
  9. Toyota Highlander —264,128 sold
  10. Honda Civic —263,787 sold
  11. Toyota Tacoma —252,520 sold
  12. Toyota Corolla —248,993 sold
  13. GMC Sierra —248,924 sold
  14. Ford Explorer —219,871
  15. Jeep Wrangler —204,609 sold
  16. Honda Accord —202,676 sold
  17. Tesla Model Y —178,732 sold
  18. Mazda CX-5 —168,448 sold
  19. Chevy Equinox —165,323 sold
  20. Subaru Forester —154,723 sold

The Ford F-150 was also the highest-selling used car in 2021. Ford But which car was the number-one seller in your state? That figure seems to have a direct correlation with the number of cowboys you have. Lot of cowboys? F-150 is your sales leader. Montana, Oklahoma, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming were among the F-150 believers.
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What did Henry Ford do to impact society?

The Bottom Line – By introducing the moving assembly line, Henry Ford was hugely influential in changing the way that we manufacture not only cars but all types of goods. His innovations in the structure of work also contributed to the post-World War II rise of the American middle class, changing the economic landscape of the country.
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How did Ford change American society?

Advertisment for the $5 work day Pictured above is Henry Ford with his first and ten millionth Ford vehicle Henry Ford’s impact stretches beyond cars and even his lifetime. He was instrumental in giving higher wages to employees, he changed the way manufacturing plants operated. He was even able to change the economy of a city.

  • Lastly, but certainly not least, he changed the way people travel to this day.
  • Ford was revolutionary in many ways.
  • For introducing the manufacturing world to the conveyer belt assembly line, as discussed in another section.
  • Also, for innovating the way vehicles in general, from a novelty item, as they were thought of before Ford, to almost what they have become today, a necessity.

Maybe the biggest impact Ford had during his lifetime was introducing his laborers to the $5 work day 1, When he announced this plan in 1914, it more than doubled his labor forces salary. Soon he was able to pick and choose the best workers he wanted from a large pool of candidates, which also did wonders for the Detroit economy.

With higher wages, Ford was able to increase the living of many of his employees, taking most of them from working class up to middle class where they were able to enjoy many of those luxuries 1, Allowing his employees, the ability to buy the very thing they are making, which often at the time was unheard of.

His impact was not limited to just the wages of his employees, as discussed briefly above, offering such high wages increases the amount of people who want to work with and for you. This in turn created a higher supply of people moving to Detroit wanting to work for Ford and his motor company, also who would live in or around Detroit.

  • Prior to the conception and success of Ford Motor Company, Detroit is America’s 13 th largest city with a population of 285,704 people living in it 2,
  • In 1930, at the building of Detroit, there was over 1 million people living there and increased the population by 57% over the decade 3,
  • While not all due to Henry Ford and his motor company, a large part is due to him and his new higher wages.

The final impact that Henry Ford had is on the world. That is the impact on motor vehicles and how people use them. It cannot be stated enough that while history often remembers Ford as the inventor of the car, he wasn’t. What he was, and still is, is the innovator of the car.

  • Prior to the twentieth century, automobiles were only for the rich, and are still not a reliable form of transportation 4,
  • Henry Ford however saw the potential of automobiles and choose to spend his life perfecting them and creating them for the working class.
  • Introducing his Model T, a car that was designed and made so that it could be afforded by his own workers.

The Model T debuted in 1908 and was priced at $825. Finally, a car made by and made for working class people. Allowing normal, everyday people the ability to purchase a car allowed the transformation of America. Now instead of having to take the train, trolley, or walk everywhere, you can drive yourself.

Today in America, 88% of American families own at least one car 5, that is due to people, like Ford, who made it available to purchase a car back when they were being invented.1. The Henry Ford Blog – The Latest on American History & Innovation. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Industrial Detroit (1860-1900). (n.d.). Retrieved from Detroit Population. (2018, January 25). Retrieved from Henry Ford Changes the World.
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What is Henry Ford’s most famous quote?

‘ There is no failure except failure to serve one’s purpose.’ Source: Ford News, p.
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How did Henry Ford treat his workers?

In 1914, Henry Ford took the radical step of paying workers $5 per day for a 40-hour work week ; he called this compensation ‘profit-sharing.’ Ford’s turnover problem disappeared. In addition, Ford workers could buy the cars they produced, benefitting the company.
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Did Henry Ford invent the first car?

A common myth is that Henry Ford invented the automobile. This is not true. While he may not have invented the automobile, he did offer a new way of manufacturing a large number of vehicles. This method of production was the moving assembly line. The most common feature of this assembly line was the conveyer belt.

The belts were in use within other industries, including slaughterhouses. Moving the product to the worker seemed like a better use of time and resources. The Ford Motor Company team decided to try to implement the moving assembly line in the automobile manufacturing process. After much trial and error, in 1913 Henry Ford and his employees successfully began using this innovation at our Highland Park assembly plant.

What made this assembly line unique was the movement element. Henry Ford famously remarked that the use of the moving assembly line allowed for the work to be taken to workers rather than the worker moving to and around the vehicle. The vehicle began to be pulled down the line and built step-by-step.

At first it was pulled by a rope, and later it became a simple moving chain mechanism. The new process made it so that the Model T was now built in only ninety minutes. Yet while the work of assembling an automobile was now simplified, workers began to leave Ford Motor Company to work for their competitors.

The reason was workers found the assembly line work boring as they were now doing only one or two task(s) instead of working to build an entire vehicle. Additionally, workers did not like the strict timing that the moving assembly line required. It was difficult to make sure you completed all of your work before the car moved down the line to its next station.

  • Cars would end up missing parts, or workers could end up falling over each other while putting the car together.
  • In order to persuade workers to stay with Ford Motor Company, Henry Ford introduced the $5 workday.
  • The $5 workday involved profit sharing payments that would more than double the worker’s daily wage, raising it to $5.

It was widely believed that this move would quickly bankrupt the company. The opposite occurred. Mechanics around the country headed to Detroit in pursuit of the high wages. Henry Ford stated: “We believe in making 25,000 men prosperous and contented rather than follow the plan of making a few slave drivers in our establishment multi-millionaires.” Model A assembly line circa 1931. Not only did Henry Ford increase the wages of his employees, but he also decreased the number of hours they were responsible for working. Henry Ford decreased the shifts by one hour and gave employees higher wages. The shift length decrease allowed Ford to create a third shift and hire more workers.

  1. The assembly allowed Ford Motor Company to become a twenty-four hour operation.
  2. Fordism” also grew out of the moving assembly line.
  3. Fordism refers to large-scale production combined with higher wages, and it spread to other industries following the $5 day started by Ford Motor Company.
  4. This move by Ford was followed by other companies, and changed the business and manufacturing world across the nation as workers began to seek out jobs that came with higher wages and shorter hours.

An important outcome of the moving assembly line was the drop in price for the Model T. In 1908, the car sold for $825 and by 1925 it only sold for only $260, making the car more affordable to individuals everywhere. Most especially, it allowed employees of Ford Motor Company to be able to have a better life and to be able to afford the product that they built.
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What are 3 interesting facts about Henry Ford?

Additional Information –

Henry Ford was friends with Thomas Edison.Henry Ford raised a total of 188.1 billion dollars.Henry died at age 83, on April 7th, 1947.He built the Model A Ford car with his son.He bought an airplane company.He was a peaceful man, and didn’t like when America got involved in World War 1 and 2. He is in the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America. He didn’t like smoking, and wrote a book about the bad contributions. There is a history museum about him called, “The Henry Ford.”

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Why did Ford failed?

One of the first multinationals to enter the Indian car market, Ford made some serious errors of judgement which led to its exit. Ford’s announcement to stop making cars in India makes you look back at its chequered history to see why it got the Indian market so wrong.

  • Ironically, the American carmaker did everything by the book.
  • It set up full scale manufacturing operations in India which included two vehicle production plants (440,000 units per annum capacity), a state-of-the-art engine factory, and also developed a deep supplier base to give its models a high level of local content.

And to make its investments pay off (over US $ 2 billion over 25 years), Ford focussed on the mass, sub-4-metre segment for economies of scale and, for more volumes, it even made India an important export base. Ford products were well-engineered, set a benchmark for driving dynamics, affordable to buy and latterly became cheap to run as well.

  1. And, unlike so many multinationals which gave up on diesel, Ford in fact invested in BS6 diesel tech in the belief that India was still a substantially large diesel car market.
  2. So, then why did Ford fail? It clearly wasn’t for a lack of commitment.
  3. In fact, the American carmaker followed the same business template in India as some of its hugely successful rivals like Hyundai but after persevering for 27 unprofitable years, it didn’t manage to crack the Indian code.
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That’s because this code can’t be found in any rule book, strategy document or the PowerPoint presentations consultants charge millions for. To win in the highly nuanced Indian market, you have to write your own rules, stay street smart, keep your ear to the ground and be fast and agile to swing with customers preferences in a rapidly changing market.

  1. It wasn’t just because of wrong strategy but some serious errors of judgement or simply not ‘getting India’ that finally got Ford.
  2. Here are five reasons why Ford never really recovered.1.
  3. Underestimating the Indian customer and his wallet The gold rush of the mid-1990s after the auto industry was de-licensed saw multinationals tripping over themselves to get a foothold in what was then seen as the last untapped market of the world.

Ford was one of the first MNCs to come to India but completely misread the Indian consumer. The thinking was that after decades of being starved of the latest products, Indians would blindly snap up anything a global brand offered. The failure of the Ford Escort – the company’s first model – was a wake-up call. The Escort came with an old 1.3 petrol engine, no power steering (though the diesel had it) and no power windows for the rear passenger. Indian consumers rejected it. The reality of the Indian market bit hard and Ford realised that it couldn’t simply parachute one its global products and had to develop something tailor-made for the Indian market.

Taking these lessons to the drawing board, Ford’s first made-in-India car – the Ikon – was born and became an instant hit. The Ikon, the first model to come out of Ford’s Maraimalainagar factory in Chennai, had a decent level of local content which allowed it to be smartly priced. It was practical, very spacious for its class and drove like an absolute dream.

No surprise then that in the first full year of its sales it raced ahead as the best-selling car in the midsize segment, But, after a few years the high cost of ownership began to bite. Case in point, former Autocar Professional staffer Darius Lam was slapped with a Rs.70,000 bill to repair the air-conditioner of his five-year-old Ikon, whose residual value was no more than Rs 150,000! Such instances of repair shock were common and gave Ford a reputation for high ownership costs, which impacted sales which in turn impacted resale value leading to a serious damage to the brand.

Fords had earned a reputation for being expensive to maintain. Again, Ford didn’t give up but took these hard-hitting learnings to heart. With the Figo, Ford had figured out what the Indian customers wanted. Beyond an affordable, cheap to run and practical car (which the Figo was) but crucially it had to be cheap to service.

Customers just hated wallet-busting workshop bills. The strategy to develop more ‘child parts’ and further localise the Figo paid off. The Figo, which won the 2011 Autocar Car of the Year, was a turning point for Ford which established its entry-level hatch as a more spacious and solid alternative to the other smaller and lighter econoboxes. At its peak, the Figo sold 78,116 units in FY2011.

But the stigma of being an expensive car to own stuck to the brand like a bad smell. It took Ford more than a decade to address the issue cost of ownership by offering spares and service cheaper than rivals and spending crores of marketing money to shake off the perception. By then it was too late.2. Overinvesting in an overestimated market Chuffed with the success of the Figo which sold a peak 78,116 units in FY2011and a market that was forecast to grow to 7 million cars, Ford, in 2011, approved a plan to invest $1 billion (Rs 7,401 crore) in a second, state-of-the-art factory in Sanand, Gujarat with a capacity of 240,000 units a year.

The runaway success of the EcoSport launched in 2013 further fuelled confidence in the Indian market. However, after the inauguration of the Sanand factory on March 26, 2015, by then global CEO Mark Fields, the growth trajectory of the Indian market had tapered off. March 26, 2015: Ford CEO Mark Fields and then chief minister of Gujarat, Anandiben Patel, at the opening of the Sanand plant. Ford India’s Sanand plant has a manufacturing capacity of 240,000 vehicles and 610,000 engines per annum. Misjudging the growth of the Indian market and, more importantly, misjudging Ford’s own growth potential turned this plant into a millstone around Ford’s neck.

Running well below capacity, Sanand made Ford haemorrhage badly and the company never recovered from the huge losses incurred. In fact, if Ford hadn’t invested in Sanand, it’s possible that it wouldn’t have had to shut shop in India.3. Chasing Maruti Suzuki instead of the SUV market With the opening of the Sanand plant, Ford started chasing volumes and drove deeper into mass-market segments with sub-4-metre products like the Figo and Aspire.

As a consequence, Ford went head-on against Maruti Suzuki and Hyundai with compact sedan and hatchback offerings which was a big mistake. Whilst Ford did an admirable job of lowering the running costs of all its models to compete at the budget end, it ended up with a bloody nose and learnt the hard way that the bottom of the pyramid is locked out by the leaders. By focussing on its ‘B-cars’ (Aspire and Figo), Ford missed jumping on the SUV bandwagon, the fastest growing and most profitable wedge of the market. The Ecosport’s success should been a pointer but Ford ignored the gaping hole between the Ecosport and the Endeavour which is at it turned out, is the most lucrative segment in the market, which the Koreans have effectively grabbed.

  • In 2015, Ford seriously looked at launching the Kuga midsize SUV as a Creta fighter but with little localisation, costs could not be brought down to a competitive level and the plan was scrapped.
  • Ford re-looked at the midsize SUV segment and had reached an advanced stage of development with the B772, a Creta fighter based on an all-new platform to be shared with Mahindra.

But again, this project died with the alliance falling apart.4. Spending where it doesn’t matter and not spending where it does It’s not only Ford but just about every other western automaker that can’t quite get the cost structure right for India which makes them uncompetitive in the market.

  • Nowing where to spend and where not to, is a deft balancing act which only a company like Maruti Suzuki has mastered.
  • With Ford, it was a classic case of spending where it didn’t benefit the customer and cutting corners where it does.
  • Case in point is the Sanand plant which was built like a ‘Taj Mahal’ to costly global specifications, some of them of no relevance to India.

Why waste money on building a structure to take a gale force rating of 9 just because Ford’s plants in America (hit four times more by tornados than any other country in the world) are built that way? Why spend 6-7 times more on forklifts (a plant needs lots of them) than what Mahindra or Tata would just because they meet Ford’s global standards? It’s this sort of mindset, of blindly following an expensive global standard, howsoever irrelevant it maybe, that throws costs out of whack. Employee costs too are ridiculously high (rumoured to be Rs 10 lakh per annum on average for every worker), which again hammers the bottom line. No surprise then that the break-even volume to justify the money spent on building the Sanandplant worked out to 100,000 units a year, a figure Ford never came close to.

  • One of the reasons it never came close to achieving these volumes is because Ford didn’t spend money where it should have which is on its cars.
  • Again, the company didn’t stint on safety and the build quality of its cars, which didn’t matter so much to the customer but what did was the penny-pinching in terms of materials, equipment and features.

Whilst the Korean brands at one level pampered customers with the latest gizmos, Ford started deleting some features (like its fabulous Sync 3 infotainment unit) from its cars just to save costs and this didn’t go down well with customers. Also, Ford didn’t put enough marketing money behind its capable products, especially when they were launched. The launch of the Aspire, a key mass-market model back in 2015, was drowned out by the marketing blitz generated by the Maruti S-Cross and Hyundai Creta launched around the same time.

  • There was just no buzz around the Aspire and Figo like there was for the blockbuster Ecosport.5.
  • Too good for its own good Ford’s reputation as an employer is possibly second to none in the auto industry.
  • The Ford family-owned global automaker has a culture of strong family values and ethics.
  • However, this ‘Mr.

Nice Guy’ culture, whilst great for employees and their partners, blunted the competitive edge needed to survive in a cut-throat marketplace like India. Ford’s easy-going style and lack of aggression was obvious right in the beginning when the company was building the Maraimalainagar factory. Ford’s tolerance of non-performing dealers has also been its undoing. Rather than cracking the whip on erring dealers, some of whom are believed to have diverted profits into the real estate business instead of ploughing them back into the dealerships, they weren’t dealt with strictly enough as they were ‘part of the family’.
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Did Ford improve the economy?

In January 1914, Henry Ford started paying his auto workers a remarkable $5 a day. Doubling the average wage helped ensure a stable workforce and likely boosted sales since the workers could now afford to buy the cars they were making. It laid the foundation for an economy driven by consumer demand.
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Is Ford still owned by the Ford family?

Ford Motor Company

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Ford World Headquarters in Dearborn, Michigan
Type Public
Traded as
  • NYSE : F
  • S&P 100 Component
  • S&P 500 Component
Industry Automotive
Predecessor Henry Ford Company
Founded June 16, 1903 ; 119 years ago
Founder Henry Ford
Headquarters Ford World Headquarters, Dearborn, Michigan, U.S.
Area served Worldwide
Key people
  • William Clay Ford Jr. ( Executive Chairman )
  • Jim Farley ( President & CEO )
  • Automobiles
  • Luxury vehicles
  • Commercial vehicles
  • Automotive parts
  • Pickup trucks
  • SUVs
Production output 3.9 million vehicles (2021)
  • Ford Blue
  • Ford Credit
  • Ford Drive
  • Ford Model E
  • Ford Pro
  • Automotive finance
  • Vehicle leasing
  • Vehicle service
Revenue US$ 136.3 billion (2021)
Operating income US$4.5 billion (2021)
Net income US$17.9 billion (2021)
Total assets US$257 billion (2021)
Total equity US$48.6 billion (2021)
Owner Ford family (2% equity; 40% voting power)
Number of employees 186,000 (2020)
  • Ford Performance
  • Lincoln
Subsidiaries show List
Footnotes / references

Ford Motor Company (commonly known as Ford ) is an American multinational automobile manufacturer headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, United States. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. The company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand, and luxury cars under its Lincoln luxury brand.

Ford also owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer Troller, an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom and a 32% stake in China’s Jiangling Motors, It also has joint ventures in China ( Changan Ford ), Taiwan ( Ford Lio Ho ), Thailand ( AutoAlliance Thailand ), Turkey ( Ford Otosan ), and Russia ( Ford Sollers ).

The company is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is controlled by the Ford family ; they have minority ownership but the majority of the voting power. Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines ; by 1914, these methods were known around the world as Fordism,

Ford’s former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 respectively, were sold to the Indian automaker Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010. In 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and the Middle East since 1938.

Ford is the second-largest U.S.-based automaker (behind General Motors ) and the fifth-largest in the world (behind Toyota, Volkswagen, Hyundai and General Motors) based on 2015 vehicle production. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth-largest automaker in Europe.

  1. The company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent of the voting rights.
  2. During the financial crisis of 2007–08 the company struggled financially but did not have to be rescued by the federal government, unlike the other two major US automakers.

Ford Motors has since returned to profitability, and was the eleventh-ranked overall American-based company in the 2018 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2017 of $156.7 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants and facilities worldwide.
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Did Ford invent the 8 hour work day?

Where did the concept of the nine-to-five job come from? This PolitiFact article serves as a nice primer. Here’s a summary: The first law in the United States that called for an eight-hour work day was passed in Illinois in 1867. In 1926, as many history scholars know, Henry Ford — possibly influenced by US labor unions — instituted an eight-hour work day for some of his employees.

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Because of Ford’s stature, the move stimulated a national discussion. But it wasn’t until more than 70 years after the Illinois law that all full-time workers in the United States were required to be paid overtime if they worked more than 40 hours a week, thanks to President Franklin Roosevelt’s signing of the Fair Labor Standards Act in 1938.

Prior to the 8-hour work day, many Americans — who worked primarily in manufacturing and industrial capacities — would routinely clock 10- or even 12-hour days. Because their jobs consisted primarily of manual labor, it shouldn’t come as much of a surprise that labor unions, advocates, and politicians lobbied hard to limit workers’ hours.
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What was Ford’s slogan?

What is the Ford slogan? I was involved in a charity trivia night this past weekend, and the last question asked what the Ford slogan was. I had to leave early to pick up my daughter from swim practice, so I never get the answer. What is Ford’s slogan? The Ford slogan is Built Ford Tough, which has been in use since 1979.

Go further. Ford has a better idea. Have you driven a Ford lately? Built for the road ahead. Quality is job one.

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How many cars did Henry Ford make a day?

Here, men make gas tanks. Under the new assembly line system, it took 1 hour and 33 minutes to produce a car, allowing Ford to produce 1,000 cars a day.
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What did Henry Ford do to impact America?

Henry Ford Changes the World, 1908

  • Henry Ford Changes the World, 1908

A t the beginning of the 20th century the automobile was a plaything for the rich. Most models were complicated machines that required a chauffer conversant with its individual mechanical nuances to drive it. Henry Ford was determined to build a simple, reliable and affordable car; a car the average American worker could afford.

Henry Ford and his first carthe Quadricycle, which he built in 1896

steadily reduced the cost of the Model T. Instead of pocketing the profits; Ford lowered the price of his car. As a result, Ford Motors sold more cars and steadily increased its earnings – transforming the automobile from a luxury toy to a mainstay of American society.

The Model T made its debut in 1908 with a purchase price of $825.00. Over ten thousand were sold in its first year, establishing a new record. Four years later the price dropped to $575.00 and sales soared. By 1914, Ford could claim a 48% share of the automobile market. Central to Ford’s ability to produce an affordable car was the development of the assembly line that increased the efficiency of manufacture and decreased its cost.

Ford did not conceive the concept, he perfected it. Prior to the introduction of the assembly line, cars were individually crafted by teams of skilled workmen – a slow and expensive procedure. The assembly line reversed the process of automobile manufacture.

Instead of workers going to the car, the car came to the worker who performed the same task of assembly over and over again. With the introduction and perfection of the process, Ford was able to reduce the assembly time of a Model T from twelve and a half hours to less than six hours. The Ford Motor Company manufactured its first car – the Model A – in 1903.

By 1906, the Model N was in production but Ford had not yet achieved his goal of producing a simple, affordable car. He would accomplish this with the Model T. Charles Sorensen – who had joined Henry Ford two years earlier – describes how Ford had him set up a secret room where design of the new car would be carried out: “Early one morning in the winter of 1906-7, Henry Ford dropped in at the pattern department of the Piquette Avenue plant to see me.

‘Come with me, Charlie,’ he said, ‘I want to show you something.’ I followed him to the third floor and its north end, which was not fully occupied for assembly work. He looked about and said, ‘Charlie, I’d like to have a room finished off right here in this space. Put up a wall with a door in big enough to run a car in and out.

Get a good lock for the door, and when you’re ready, we’ll have Joe Galamb come up in here. We’re going to start a completely new job.’ The room he had in mind became the maternity ward for Model T. It took only a few days to block off the little room on the third floor back of the Piquette Avenue plant and to set up a few simple power tools and Joe Galamb’s two blackboards.

  1. The blackboards were a good idea.
  2. They gave a king-sized drawing which, when all initial refinements had been made, could be photographed for two purposes: as a protection against patent suits attempting to prove prior claim to originality and as a substitute for blueprints.
  3. A little more than a year later Model T, the product of that cluttered little room, was announced to the world.

But another half year passed before the first Model T was ready for what had already become a clamorous market. The summer before, Mr. Ford told me to block off the experimental room for Joe Galamb, a momentous event occurred which would affect the entire automotive industry.

The 1908 Model T. Two forwardgears, a 20 horsepower engineand no driver doors. They sold like hot cakes

Ford, Wills, and I listened to him and examined his data. We had already read about this English vanadium steel. It had a tensile strength nearly three times that of steels we were using, but we’d never seen it. Smith demonstrated its toughness and showed that despite its strength it could be machined more easily than plain steel.

Immediately Mr. Ford sensed the great possibilities of this shock-resisting steel. ‘Charlie,’ he said to me after Smith left, ‘this means entirely new design requirements, and we can get a better, lighter, and cheaper car as a result of it.’ It was the great common sense that Mr. Ford could apply to new ideas and his ability to simplify seemingly complicated problems that made him the pioneer he was.

This demonstration of vanadium steel was the deciding point for him to begin the experimental work that resulted in Model T. Actually it took four years and more to develop Model T. Previous models were the guinea pigs, one might say, for experimentation and development of a car which would realize Henry Ford’s dream of a car which anyone could afford to buy, which anyone could drive anywhere, and which almost anyone could keep in repair.

Many of the world’s greatest mechanical discoveries were accidents in the course of other experimentation. Not so Model T, which ushered in the motor transport age and set off a chain reaction of machine production now known as automation. All our experimentation at Ford in the early days was toward a fixed and, then wildly fantastic goal.

By March, 1908, we were ready to announce Model T, but not to produce it, On October 1 of that year the first car was introduced to the public. From Joe Galamb’s little room on the third floor had come a revolutionary vehicle. In the next eighteen years, out of Piquette Avenue, Highland Park, River Rouge, and from assembly plants all over the United States came 15,000,000 more.”

  1. A few months later- in July 1908 – Sorensen and a plant foreman spent their days off developing the basics of the Assembly Line:

“What was worked out at Ford was the practice of moving the work from one worker to another until it became a complete unit, then arranging the flow of these units at the right time and the right place to a moving final assembly line from which came a finished product.

The old fashioned way – limousines areassembled at individual stations by a Pittsburg manufacturer, 1912

it. Charlie Lewis, the youngest and most aggressive of our assembly foremen, and I tackled this problem. We gradually worked it out by bringing up only what we termed the fast-moving materials. The main bulky parts, like engines and axles, needed a lot of room.

To give them that space, we left the smaller, more compact, light-handling material in a storage building on the northwest comer of the grounds. Then we arranged with the stock department to bring up at regular hours such divisions of material as we had marked out and packaged. This simplification of handling cleaned things up materially.

But at best, I did not like it. It was then that the idea occurred to me that assembly would be easier, simpler, and faster if we moved the chassis along, beginning at one end of the plant with a frame and adding the axles and the wheels; then moving it past the stockroom, instead of moving the stockroom to the chassis.

I had Lewis arrange the materials on the floor so that what was needed at the start of assembly would be at that end of the building and the other parts would be along the line as we moved the chassis along. We spent every Sunday during July planning this. Then one Sunday morning, after the stock was laid out in this fashion, Lewis and I and a couple of helpers put together the first car, I’m sure, that was ever built on a moving line.

We did this simply by putting the frame on skids, hitching a towrope to the front end and pulling the frame along until axles and wheels were put on. Then we rolled the chassis along in notches to prove what could be done. While demonstrating this moving line, we worked on some of the subassemblies, such as completing a radiator with all its hose fittings so that we could place it very quickly on the chassis.

We also did this with the dash and mounted the steering gear and the spark coil.” The basics of the Assembly Line had been established but it would take another five years for the concept to be implemented. Implementation would await construction of the new Highland Park plant which was purpose-built to incorporate the assembly line.

The process began at the top floor of the four-story building where the engine was assembled and progressed level by level to the ground floor where the body was attached to the chassis.

End of the Line. The Model T’s body is joinedto its chassis at the Highland Park plant

By August, 1913, all links in the chain of moving assembly lines were complete except the last and most spectacular one – the one we had first experimented with one Sunday morning just five years before. Again a towrope was hitched to a chassis, this time pulled by a capstan.

  1. Each part was attached to the moving chassis in order, from axles at the beginning to bodies at the end of the line.
  2. Some parts took longer to attach than others; so, to keep an even pull on the towrope, there must be differently spaced intervals between delivery of the parts along the line.
  3. This called for patient timing and rearrangement until the flow of parts and the speed and intervals along the assembly line meshed into a perfectly synchronized operation throughout all stages of production.

Before the end of the year a power-driven assembly line was in operation, and New Year’s saw three more installed. Ford mass production and a new era in industrial history had begun” References: Charles Sorensen’s account can be found in: Sorensen, Charles, E., My Forty Years with Ford (1956); Banum, Russ, The Ford Century (2002); Brinkley, Douglas, Wheels for the world: Henry Ford, his company, and a century of progress, 1903-2003 (2003).
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How did Henry Ford treat his workers?

In 1914, Henry Ford took the radical step of paying workers $5 per day for a 40-hour work week ; he called this compensation ‘profit-sharing.’ Ford’s turnover problem disappeared. In addition, Ford workers could buy the cars they produced, benefitting the company.
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What are 3 interesting facts about Henry Ford?

Additional Information –

Henry Ford was friends with Thomas Edison.Henry Ford raised a total of 188.1 billion dollars.Henry died at age 83, on April 7th, 1947.He built the Model A Ford car with his son.He bought an airplane company.He was a peaceful man, and didn’t like when America got involved in World War 1 and 2. He is in the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America. He didn’t like smoking, and wrote a book about the bad contributions. There is a history museum about him called, “The Henry Ford.”

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What was Ford’s main goal?

In 1907, Henry Ford announced his goal for the Ford Motor Company: to create ‘a motor car for the great multitude.’ At that time, automobiles were expensive, custom-made machines.
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